## Opcodes

as implements all the standard V850 opcodes.

as also implements the following pseudo ops:

hi0()
Computes the higher 16 bits of the given expression and stores it into the immediate operand field of the given instruction. For example: `mulhi hi0(here - there), r5, r6' computes the difference between the address of labels 'here' and 'there', takes the upper 16 bits of this difference, shifts it down 16 bits and then mutliplies it by the lower 16 bits in register 5, putting the result into register 6.
lo()
Computes the lower 16 bits of the given expression and stores it into the immediate operand field of the given instruction. For example: `addi lo(here - there), r5, r6' computes the difference between the address of labels 'here' and 'there', takes the lower 16 bits of this difference and adds it to register 5, putting the result into register 6.
hi()
Computes the higher 16 bits of the given expression and then adds the value of the most significant bit of the lower 16 bits of the expression and stores the result into the immediate operand field of the given instruction. For example the following code can be used to compute the address of the label 'here' and store it into register 6: `movhi hi(here), r0, r6' `movea lo(here), r6, r6' The reason for this special behaviour is that movea performs a sign extention on its immediate operand. So for example if the address of 'here' was 0xFFFFFFFF then without the special behaviour of the hi() pseudo-op the movhi instruction would put 0xFFFF0000 into r6, then the movea instruction would takes its immediate operand, 0xFFFF, sign extend it to 32 bits, 0xFFFFFFFF, and then add it into r6 giving 0xFFFEFFFF which is wrong (the fifth nibble is E). With the hi() pseudo op adding in the top bit of the lo() pseudo op, the movhi instruction actually stores 0 into r6 (0xFFFF + 1 = 0x0000), so that the movea instruction stores 0xFFFFFFFF into r6 - the right value.
sdaoff()
Computes the offset of the named variable from the start of the Small Data Area (whoes address is held in register 4, the GP register) and stores the result as a 16 bit signed value in the immediate operand field of the given instruction. For example: `ld.w sdaoff(_a_variable)[gp],r6' loads the contents of the location pointed to by the label '_a_variable' into register 6, provided that the label is located somewhere within +/- 32K of the address held in the GP register. [Note the linker assumes that the GP register contains a fixed address set to the address of the label called '__gp'. This can either be set up automatically by the linker, or specifically set by using the `--defsym __gp=<value>' command line option].
tdaoff()
Computes the offset of the named variable from the start of the Tiny Data Area (whoes address is held in register 30, the EP register) and stores the result as a 7 or 8 bit unsigned value in the immediate operand field of the given instruction. For example: `sld.w tdaoff(_a_variable)[ep],r6' loads the contents of the location pointed to by the label '_a_variable' into register 6, provided that the label is located somewhere within +256 bytes of the address held in the EP register. [Note the linker assumes that the EP register contains a fixed address set to the address of the label called '__ep'. This can either be set up automatically by the linker, or specifically set by using the `--defsym __ep=<value>' command line option].
zdaoff()
Computes the offset of the named variable from address 0 and stores the result as a 16 bit signed value in the immediate operand field of the given instruction. For example: `movea zdaoff(_a_variable),zero,r6' puts the address of the label '_a_variable' into register 6, assuming that the label is somewhere within the first 32K of memory. (Strictly speaking it also possible to access the last 32K of memory as well, as the offsets are signed).

For information on the V850 instruction set, see V850 Family 32-/16-Bit single-Chip Microcontroller Architecture Manual from NEC. Ltd.

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