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malloc, realloc, free---manage memory


#include <stdlib.h>
void *malloc(size_t nbytes);
void *realloc(void *aptr, size_t nbytes);
void free(void *aptr);

void *_malloc_r(void *reent, size_t nbytes);
void *_realloc_r(void *reent, 
    void *aptr, size_t nbytes);
void _free_r(void *reent, void *aptr);

These functions manage a pool of system memory.

Use malloc to request allocation of an object with at least nbytes bytes of storage available. If the space is available, malloc returns a pointer to a newly allocated block as its result.

If you already have a block of storage allocated by malloc, but you no longer need all the space allocated to it, you can make it smaller by calling realloc with both the object pointer and the new desired size as arguments. realloc guarantees that the contents of the smaller object match the beginning of the original object.

Similarly, if you need more space for an object, use realloc to request the larger size; again, realloc guarantees that the beginning of the new, larger object matches the contents of the original object.

When you no longer need an object originally allocated by malloc or realloc (or the related function calloc), return it to the memory storage pool by calling free with the address of the object as the argument. You can also use realloc for this purpose by calling it with 0 as the nbytes argument.

The alternate functions _malloc_r, _realloc_r, and _free_r are reentrant versions. The extra argument reent is a pointer to a reentrancy structure.

malloc returns a pointer to the newly allocated space, if successful; otherwise it returns NULL. If your application needs to generate empty objects, you may use malloc(0) for this purpose.

realloc returns a pointer to the new block of memory, or NULL if a new block could not be allocated. NULL is also the result when you use `realloc(aptr,0)' (which has the same effect as `free(aptr)'). You should always check the result of realloc; successful reallocation is not guaranteed even when you request a smaller object.

free does not return a result.

malloc, realloc, and free are specified by the ANSI C standard, but other conforming implementations of malloc may behave differently when nbytes is zero.

Supporting OS subroutines required: sbrk, write (if WARN_VLIMIT).

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